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As a result, this will lead to an extra 17 centimetres of sea level rise by 2100. 

一队89 polar scientists from 50 international organisations have produced the most 极地冰盖的损失至今的全貌。

冰盖质量平衡 相互比较工作(Imbie) 团队组合26个独立调查来计算 changes in the mass of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets between 1992 and 2018。

Altogether, data from 11 different satellite missions were used, including measurements of the ice sheets’ changing volume, flow and gravity.

这项研究结果发表 在同伴的两篇文章 性质, 节目 that Greenland and Antarctica lost 6.4 trillion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2017 – pushing global sea levels up by 17.8 millimetres. Of the total sea level rise, 10.6 millimetres (60%) was due to Greenland ice losses and 7.2 millimetres (40%) was due to Antarctica.


冰损失的组合速率已经上升 by a factor six in just three decades, up from 81 billion tonnes per year in


该 assessment, led by 教授 Andrew Shepherd at the University of Leeds and 博士 Erik Ivins at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the US National Aeronautics and Space 局(NASA)。

In their Fifth Assessment Report, the 在tergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted that global sea levels will rise 53 centimetres by 2100, and it is estimated that this would put 360 million people at risk of annual coastal 洪水。

But the IMBIE Team’s studies shows that ice losses from both Antarctica and Greenland are rising faster than expected, tracking the IPCC’s worst-case (“高端”)气候变暖情景。

Iceberg with melt pond in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

An iceberg with melt point in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

教授 Shepherd说:“每


“如果 Antarctica and Greenland continue to track the worst-case climate warming scenario, they will cause an extra 17 centimetres of sea level rise by the end 世纪。

“这个 would mean 400 million people are at risk of annual coastal flooding by 2100.

“这些 are not unlikely events with small impacts; they are already underway and will 是毁灭性的沿海社区。“

几乎所有的冰丢失 from Antarctica - and half of that lost from Greenland - has been triggered by oceans melting their outlet glaciers, which causes them to speed up. 该 remainder of Greenland’s ice losses are due rising air temperature, which has 冰融化片在其表面上。

结合 losses from both ice sheets peaked at 552 billion tonnes per year in 2010 and averaged 475 billion tonnes per year for the remainder of the decade. 该 peak loss coincided with several years of intense surface melting in Greenland, and last summer’s Arctic heatwave means that 2019 should set a new record for polar ice sheet loss. Antarctica and Greenland are now losing ice five and seven times faster than they were in the 1990s, respectively.

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博士 Ivins said: “Satellite observations of polar ice are essential for monitoring and predicting how climate change could affect ice losses and sea level rise.

“而 computer simulation allows us to make projections from climate change scenarios, the satellite measurements provide prima facie, rather irrefutable, evidence.

“我们的 project is a great example of the importance of international collaboration to 这解决问题的整体规模。

guðfinnaaðalgeirsdóttir, 教授 of Glaciology at the University of Iceland and lead author of the 在tergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s sixth assessment report, who was 在研究中没有涉及,说:

“该Imbie Team’s reconciled estimate of Greenland and Antarctic ice loss is timely for the IPCC. 该ir satellite observations show that both melting and ice discharge from Greenland have increased since observations started.

“的 ice caps in Iceland had similar reduction in ice loss in the last two years of their record, but summer 2019 was very warm in this region which resulted in higher mass loss. I would expect a similar increase in Greenland mass loss for 2019。

“它 is very important to keep monitoring the big ice sheets to know how much they 海平面上升,每年“。

地球的那个总监 Observation Programmes, Josef Aschbacher, comments: “的 findings reported by IMBIE demonstrate the fundamental importance of using satellites to monitor the evolution of ice sheets, and for evaluating models used to predict the effects of 气候变化“。


Image credits: Hamish Pritchard and 教授 Andrew Shepherd